you’ve already mentioned lasers, but what about chain guns and mass drivers?
Obviously you wouldn’t be able to stack these but they provide different protection against different targets.
Lasers I imagine have the shortest effective range BUT the greatest reliability.
Chain guns have extended range but also become less effective the harder you are maneuvering AND are more likely to be overwhelmed.
Mass drivers have the greatest range, but can ONLY work if your ship is not maneuvering. They take the longest to aim and have a minimum range BUT can often intercept multi-stage missiles long before they come close. Instead of having to deal with mirv-esk missile you would simply slap the entire system with a slug from over 2,000,000km away.
You could also have anti-missile flak. There was a game called “Gimble” which was short lived but you could build a ship with an integrated self aiming anti-missile flack battery. It would be like chain guns but have more limited ammo with the bonus of being far more effective than any other anti-missile system.
Also, for CIWS agaisnt space ships, look no further than “The Expanse” to know how CIWS would be used in ship to ship combat.